Bunker is an English term that, in its original sense, referred to the deposit of coal present in a boat. In the German language, the concept began to be used to name the place that provides protection against attack.
This last meaning is the one that the Castilian gathers in the word bunker. We understand by bunker or bunker, therefore, a kind of refuge or fortification that is used for defensive purposes.
For example: “The general believes that the enemies will reach our bunker in the next few days”, “The archaeologists were surprised to discover a hitherto unknown bunker below the center of Berlin”, “I will only leave the bunker when the danger has passed”.
The bunkers are usually developed constructions materials highly resistant. They are generally located underground or hidden to minimize the possibility of impact from bombs or missiles.
Among the most famous bunkers in history, we must highlight the one that came to be called the Führerbunker, which was located under the city of Berlin and whose objective was to protect the high command of the Nazi government and army during World War II.
Adolf Hitler was the one behind the decision to set up that place, which was built at a depth of about 9 meters, which interconnected with another called Vorbunker and which had spaces such as offices, conference rooms and even rooms or living room of doctors.
Moreover, in the last moments of the war, the Führer took refuge in him from January 16, 1945. There it became known that he married Eva Braun for later, when he was clear that the end of his power, commit suicide with her.
Currently that construction is closed and forgotten, located under what is now a square.
Although they are usually associated with the military (to be used in the middle of a war or in the face of an attack), a bunker can also be built and used by anyone from civil society. In this way, there are people who build bunkers at home to protect themselves from possible environmental catastrophes or even some possible nuclear tragedy.
This would be the case, for example, of the American actor Tom Cruise. And it has been announced that he has decided to build one in his house in order to protect himself from the end of the world. Specifically, he has done it under his mansion in Beverly Hills, possibly influenced by his religion: Scientology.
And it is also that the ecclesiastical institution that supports that one, which some consider a sect, has also created several bunkers in different corners away from the big cities and in the middle of nature.
Hiring a company specialized in the construction of bunkers capable of withstanding nuclear disasters not only requires an economic investment impossible for most pockets, but also entails a series of legal issues that not everyone can face. But there are many people who choose an easier path, although not always as effective: build their own bunker.
First of all, it is necessary to identify the type of problem we want to combat by building a bunker: it is important to note that homemade options cannot offer us the degree of protection of a high-tech military bunker, but they are useful against certain catastrophes natural and human attacks.
One of the first alternatives to the industrial bunker consists of improvising one with already built elements, such as a warehouse or a parking lot. There are various ways to reinforce these spaces, such as by using wooden planks, earth bags, steel beams and double walls; It is not only economically accessible but also takes advantage of easily available structures and materials.
Another very popular option is the corrugated steel bunker, a material used in civil works to manufacture safe structures. It can be obtained in sheets or bars, and is capable of absorbing the impact of a vehicle. Its use became popular in the Second World War; in London, for example, the well-known Anderson Shelter (built with this same material) was distributed free of charge to protect the population, and saved the lives of thousands of people.
The marine containers commonly seen in ports are also a relatively inexpensive solution to having a sturdy structure when building a bunker. They are available cheaply second-hand and are easy to transport and modify; for example, many transform them so that they can be connected to other containers. A common practice in this case is to bury the bunker, either by covering it and creating an access or by leaving its roof at ground level.
Other uses of the notion of bunker are more symbolic and refer to the space where members of a political party or other type of organization meet: “The socialist candidate will wait for the results of the elections in the bunker of his party”, “The militants gathered at the door of the Liberal Party bunker to celebrate the victory.