Venezuela in English

Venezuela is located on the northern coast of South America, bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia to the west. It lies between latitudes 0° and 12°N, and longitudes 59° and 73°W.

Geography

Climate

Venezuela’s climate varies from tropical to temperate, depending on elevation and proximity to the coast. The coastal regions experience a hot and humid tropical climate, with temperatures averaging around 27°C (80°F). Inland areas have a more moderate climate, with cooler temperatures at higher elevations.

Fauna

Venezuela boasts a diverse range of fauna due to its varied ecosystems, including the Amazon rainforest, the Orinoco River basin, and the Andes Mountains. Wildlife includes jaguars, pumas, capybaras, anacondas, and numerous bird species such as toucans and parrots.

Longest Rivers

The Orinoco River is Venezuela’s longest river, spanning approximately 2,140 kilometers (1,330 miles). It flows through the northern part of the country, supporting rich biodiversity and serving as a vital transportation route.

Highest Mountains

Pico Bolívar is Venezuela’s highest peak, rising to an elevation of 4,978 meters (16,332 feet). It is part of the Andes mountain range and is located in the Sierra Nevada National Park.

History

Prehistory

Venezuela was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the arrival of European colonizers. Various indigenous tribes, including the Caribs, Arawaks, and Yanomami, lived throughout the region, practicing agriculture, fishing, and hunting.

Spanish Colonization

In the early 16th century, Spanish explorers led by Christopher Columbus arrived in Venezuela, claiming it for the Spanish Crown. The Spanish established colonies and exploited the native population for labor, particularly in the mining of gold and other precious metals.

Independence Movement

The struggle for independence from Spanish rule began in the early 19th century, led by Venezuelan patriots such as Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Miranda. After years of fighting, Venezuela declared independence on July 5, 1811, becoming one of the first Spanish colonies in South America to break away.

Political Instability

Following independence, Venezuela experienced periods of political instability, including civil wars, dictatorships, and military coups. The 20th century saw the rise of populist leaders such as Juan Vicente Gómez and Marcos Pérez Jiménez, who ruled with authoritarian control.

Modern Era

In 1958, Venezuela transitioned to democracy after the fall of Pérez Jiménez’s regime. The country experienced economic growth fueled by oil revenues, becoming one of the wealthiest nations in Latin America. However, political corruption, economic mismanagement, and social inequality have led to ongoing challenges and unrest in recent years.

Demographics

Venezuela has a diverse population of approximately 28 million people, consisting of various ethnic groups including mestizos (mixed European and indigenous ancestry), Europeans, Africans, and indigenous peoples. The majority of Venezuelans are of mixed heritage, reflecting the country’s multicultural heritage.

Administrative Divisions

Venezuela is divided into 23 states, one capital district (Caracas), and federal dependencies, including islands and coastal territories. Each state is further subdivided into municipalities. The most populous states include Zulia, Miranda, Carabobo, and Lara.

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Caracas
  2. Maracaibo
  3. Valencia
  4. Barquisimeto
  5. Maracay
  6. Ciudad Guayana
  7. Barcelona
  8. Maturín
  9. Cumaná
  10. San Cristóbal

Education Systems

Education in Venezuela is provided free of charge and is compulsory up to the secondary level. The country has a comprehensive public education system, with both primary and secondary schools operated by the government. Higher education is also available through public universities and technical institutes. Some of the top universities in Venezuela include the Central University of Venezuela, the University of the Andes, and Simón Bolívar University.

Transportation

Airports

Venezuela has several international airports, including Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía (near Caracas), La Chinita International Airport in Maracaibo, and Arturo Michelena International Airport in Valencia.

Railways

Venezuela has a limited railway network, primarily used for freight transport. The country’s main railway line runs from Caracas to Tuy Valley, with plans for expansion and modernization in the future.

Highways

Venezuela has an extensive network of highways and roads connecting major cities and regions. The Caracas-La Guaira Highway, linking the capital to the port city of La Guaira, is one of the country’s most important transportation routes.

Ports

Venezuela has several major ports, including Puerto Cabello, La Guaira, and Maracaibo, which handle a significant portion of the country’s maritime trade.

Country Facts

  • Population: 28 million
  • Capital: Caracas
  • Official Language: Spanish
  • Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic
  • Race: Mestizo, European, African, Indigenous
  • Currency: Venezuelan Bolívar (VES)
  • ISO Country Codes: VE, VEN
  • International Calling Code: +58
  • Top-Level Domain: .ve